El presente estudio se realizó en las regiones Libertador Bernardo O´Higgins y del Maule en Chile central con el propósito de ubicar y caracterizar los remanentes de bosque esclerófilo. Este ecosistema ha sido sometido a una intensa y prolongada presión antrópica resultando en su notable reducción y fragmentación. El bosque esclerófilo está subrepresentado en el sistema de protección ambiental chileno, a pesar de su importante biodiversidad y endemismo. Las áreas con remanentes de bosque fueron ubicadas usando imágenes satelitales mediante un sistema de información geográfica multicriterio y posteriormente verificadas mediante control de terreno. Luego se caracterizaron en base a su fisonomía y estructura en tres tipos de situaciones: bosque abierto, semidenso y denso, para cada una de las comunas de las dos regiones. Las comunas se jerarquizaron en base a la cobertura de bosque y en las 14 comunas más representativas se realizó un análisis de fragmentación utilizando índices de paisaje. Los resultados muestran un bosque muy fragmentado, con enorme variación en tamaño y distribución espacial. Se presenta la cobertura según la situación de bosque para cada comuna. Para las comunas jerarquizadas se detallan número, tamaño promedio, densidad y características de los fragmentos. Se relacionan los resultados con algunos parámetros del paisaje y del uso del suelo y se discute su posible contribución al diseño de programas de manejo para la protección y recuperación del bosque esclerófilo. Estos resultados representan la información más actualizada hasta ahora, que caracteriza la situación del bosque esclerófilo referido a las unidades político-administrativas.
This paper presents a mathematical modelling of thin layer drying of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). To this end, two different methods were used to dehydrate tomato slices namely the solar drying (in an indirect solar dryer), and the forced convective drying (in a convective dryer). In the solar dryer, the experiments were carried out at a constant air velocity of 1 m.s-1 and average temperatures of 37.2, 39.9, 42.5 °C. In the convective dryer, the experiments were performed with five different temperatures (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) at a constant air velocity of 1 m.s-1. In order to estimate and select the appropriate drying curve equation, fifteen different thin layer mathematical drying models available in the literature were applied to the experimental data. The models were compared using the correlation coefficient (r) and the standard error (s) and were predicted by a non-linear regression analysis using the Curve Expert software. The Midilli-Kucuk model has shown a better ?t to the experimental drying data according to (r) and (s) for the two drying methods. The e?ect of the drying temperature on the parameters of this model was also determined. The experimental drying curves showed only a falling drying rate period. On average, tomatoes were dried to the ?nal moisture content of 0.15 kg water/kg d.m from 14.36 kg water/kg d.m in the solar drying, and to the ?nal moisture content of 0.10 kg water /kg d.m from 12.66 kg water/kg d.m in the convective drying.
The green wall benefits on existing buildings have ever more attracted the attention of the scientific community. Past studies mainly focus on the ecological and environmental advantage of existing structures, while few works address the structural benefits of the green wall. In the present study, the structural impact of the typical direct greening system referred to masonry structures, is assessed. This experimental program consists of direct shear, flexural bending and in-plane test to evaluate the effect of green wall strengthening effect on the basic characteristic of masonry. For the in-plane test, wall dimensions were 900×750×105 mm3 and consisted of 10 brick rows of 4 bricks each. The horizontal load was applied by means of a hydraulic actuator. Results show that after the initial breaking point, the post-peak strength is higher for green wall strengthened panels compared with that of non-retrofitted masonry panel. Even though the green wall strengthens masonry was not showing any improvement in initial strength, it shows the reasonable improvement in residual strength. Also, it improves the structural behavior in term of stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. Considering the overall performance, green wall strengthening can effectively improve the residual structural performance of masonry houses. Addition structural performance, to encourage retrofitting, inexpensive and easy to implement technical solutions are desirable. A direct greening system satisfies these requirements.
The present study also aims to encourage the municipal and county authorities to implement an integrated development system for the ski area, including all infrastructure elements, to avoid uncoordinated development.\n The presence of the Carpathian Mountains on the territory of Romania determined the developing of ski areas (Leonte et al., 2016). Field analysis was combined with laboratory analysis by using GIS techniques. In order to identify the characteristics of the ski areas in Romania were calculated several relevant indices. They were weighted and placed in a formula in order to achieve a ranking of functionality ski. Using the data resulted, were proposed the suitable development for the first 10 most complex ski areas in Romania.
The aim of this paper is to analyze, following a theoretical framework, the scientific language used\nin the DSM-5 to diagnose “mental disorders”. In particular, the concepts of “science of mental\ndisorders” and “scientific progress” are investigated and the epistemological and operative\nimplications of their use are introduced, covering the fields of psycho-social sciences. Arguing from\na interactionist theoretical perspective, for the first set of implications, the concepts of a-theoretical,\nobjective and neutral, evidence-based research and the tools used in order to pursue diagnostic\nvalidity and reliability are analyzed. For the second set, some consequences of the use of such\nconcepts in the work of mental health professionals with their patients, are highlighted. In\nconclusion, some considerations about the relationship between the object of study, epistemological\nreferences and practical instruments are expressed.
Background: Meningitis most common neurological disorder with high mortality. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination by routine tests does not always provide rapid definite information as far as causative agent of different types of meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is still a very common problem especially in many developing countries;\n Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic significance of Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes and C-reactive protein (CRP) by comparing it with the levels of serum in CSF of different types of meningitis.\nMaterial and Methods: A total of 150 cases, aged between 2 month and 60 years, including patients with bacterial meningitis (n=40), pyogenic meningitis (n=46), viral meningitis (n=24) and a control group (n=40), were analyzed on the basis of data from the initial clinical examinations.\nResults: Significant increase in LDH level (P<0.001) were observed in the test group when compared to the control group. The LDH activity was significantly elevated in the CSF and serum (p < 0.001) in cases of pyogenic (PM) as well as tuberculous meningitis (TBM). CRP was positive in almost all cases and was in the range of 0.7 to 9.7 mg/dl and values were corresponding in the serum. Bacterial meningitis is more common than non-bacterial meningitis. \nConclusion: The enzymatic activity of LDH although significantly raised in PM compared to TBM but there was no cutoff level to differentiate them. CRP can be used as a supportive evidence of meningitis.
Couroupita guianensis Aubl. have many therapeutic uses in the practice of traditional medicine. The current research was conducted to evaluate the anti-Candida albicans activity, antioxidant properties and phytochemical constituents with the identification of antifungal active fraction from C. guianensis flower. Anti-Candida test was carried out using disc diffusion assay, broth dilution method, time killing profile and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The extract was screened for possible antioxidant activities by 2, 2- diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (HPSA) assays. The total phenolic contents were also determined. Identification of antifungal active fraction was done by using solvent partitioning technique. The extract showed a favorable antimicrobial activity against C. albicans with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 12.5 mg/mL. Time-kill assay suggested that C. guianensis flower extract had completely inhibited C. albicans growth and also exhibited prolonged anti yeast activity. The main abnormalities notes from these microscopic observations were the alterations in morphology and complete collapse of the yeast cells after 36 h of exposure to the extract. Ethyl acetate fraction was considered as an active fraction on the basis of zone of inhibition by solvent partitioning technique. Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed the presence of major classes of phytochemicals alkaloids, phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, steroids, glycosides and saponin. The extract exhibits antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 93.2 ± 0.011 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 46.48 ± 0.13 µg/mL in the HPSA assay. The amount of total phenolics contents was 32.2 ± 0.22 mg of GAE/100 gram of extract. The extract of C. guianensis flower may be an effective agent to treat the Candida albicans infection.