This study, made an attempt to establish the relationship between population dynamics, per capita income and savings on the economic growth in Nigeria. The study used time series data from 1980-2015. The study employed Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique, Pairwise Granger Causality Tests after testing for Unit Roots with Augmented Dickey-Fuller method. Among what can be deduced from the findings are: the OLS result shows that population of Nigeria, even as it is very high relative to many other nations do not impact positively on economic growth. It has coefficient of -27426.9 with t-statistic of -1.3281215; also the result reveals that savings negatively impact on the real gross domestic product with coefficient of -43.24414 and t-statistic of -0.286684; that per capita income impact positively and significantly on real gross domestic product with coefficient of 21.53829 and t-statistic of 11.04773. The causality test indicates that causality runs from real gross domestic product to per capita income which implies that per capita income has a role to play in the growth of the country’s RGDP. The country is unable to take advantage of the huge population size to expand labour force productivity. Sequel to the findings of this study, we recommend that Policies to improve equitable distribution of the per capita income should be formulated. The government should equally put in place more economically friendly policies to attract domestic and foreign investors to utilize the abundant cheap labour resources. Policies to encourage private savings should be put in place by the government.
In 2002 AD, 183 pieces of coins were discovered by workers in the road construction near the village that is environs of Tis city of Chabahar in East southern of Iran. From 183 pieces of coins of the treasure trove, 157 pieces that are reserved in the museum of Zahedan are used in this study. Unfortunately, after fourteen years of finding these treasures, no study has been done on any of these coins, and only a small number of them listed as the number of property and the coins are arranged in the albums. Initial studies in this research were to identify the coins, finding and the exact location of these treasures and typology and the study of the coins. In this study, the present research try to identify the precise location (the king, the mint and date), and listing the coins by Stephen albums, they have studied the cognitive measurement of the quantity of coins and quantitative measurement of coins mints. Studies showed that the coins attributed to the Sassanid period, the first Fairuz placed in four groups of typological type, and in 15 different mints, such as Mazda Artaxerxes, Estakhri, Darabgerd and ... were minted. Using the relative frequency graph, the highest quantity of the coins typology belongs to the second type with 35.2 percent and the lowest belonged to the first and third types jointly with 11.52 percent of the total. The highest quantity of coins belongs to the Mint of Estakhr with 13.44 percent and the lowest belongs to the mint of Gorgan with 0.64 percent of total. Unfortunately, in terms of typology quantity, the amount of 10.88% of the coins was distorted and did not belong to any particular type. In terms of quantity of the mints, the amount of 26.88 percent of the coins was distorted and did not belong to any specific Mints.
Selection of a species for forest plantation is one of the strategic decisions for sustainable forest resource management. In this regard, a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is developed. Breaking down the decision problem leads to a hierarchy with four levels. The first level is devoted to the goal for the hierarchy. At the second level, we inserted six criteria. At the third level, the subscales (indices) are inserted. Finally, different three species as alternatives are inserted at the last level. Results show that among the criteria, the protective- environmental function obtained a higher score value. The diagonal class transmittance of each species get a higher score value among subscales at the third level. The final ranking of alternative proved that oak was the most suitable species for plantation activities at the study area. Results of this paper are useful for decision-making process and many valuable purposes such as rehabilitee of forests and planning.
Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation is a very simple low cost technology. Four Pleurotus spp. viz. P. ostreatus, P. florida, P. pulmonarius and P. flabellatus were grown in 30 ± 20C in non-sterilzed rice straw. All the biochemical studies were done using 70% methanolic extract of dried powder of mushroom fruiting bodies. Flavonoids, total phenol, orthodihydric phenol content of all the species were measured in addition to their protein and carbohydrate contents. P. ostreatus showed highest protein and carbohydrate. P. flabellatus showed highest flavonoid. P. florida showed highest phenol content whereas P. florida and P. pulmonarius showed highest orthodihydric phenol contents. Antioxidant activities of the mushroom extract in terms of ABTS and DPPH oxidation and reducing power was estimated in all the species. Though ABTS scavenging activities are more or less similar but DPPH scavenging activities differ markedly in different Pleurotus spp. and P. ostreatus showed the highest result (74+2.2%). The highest reducing power was found in P. florida. The fruiting body as well as mycelial extract of Pleurotus species showed antibacterial activities in as low as 36-45 mg fresh fruiting body equivalent which is comparable to standard commercial antibiotic erythromycin. The present study does not establish the superiority of any single species but in general all the studied Pleurotus species contained different nutraceuticals which may be utilized for the benefit of nutritional as well as health status of people from third world countries.
This paper describes development of architecture for integrated informational Web-based e-trading business process management system. An approach is justified for embedded informational system architecture formation based on typical IT solutions. A Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) using Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) concept is offered for architectural implementation of the Web-based system. Typical informational systems that belong to the Web-system are used as services. The web-services implement SOAP protocol based on WSDL (Web Services Description Language) and UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) specifications. Application of ESB and SOA provides scalability of Web-based e-trading management system, possibility for their enhancement and upgrading. The principle of basic architecture of Internet has been implemented in the architecture of integrated trading informational system taking into account transition to information level.
For this study, X-Ray radiographic tests and tensile strength tests of AISI 304- Hardox 400 steels welded by Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) welding have been performed. AISI304 - Hardox 400 steel couples with a thickness of 4 mm were joined and welded by using PTA welding method in constant feed rate and different energy inputs. While the welding strength of these welded specimens was examined by using tensile strength tests, the radiography test of these specimens was examined by using X-ray diffraction method. The the fracture surface of welding zone is examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The fatigue strength of Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA) welding samples increase due to higher deep penetration in welding zone with increasing welding power in chosen conditions. The best properties are observed with the specimens welded at Hardox 400 - AISI 304 steel double 40 A heat input. As a result of tests conducted, it is determined that AISI304- Hardox 400 steel couples showed a sufficiently high weldability by PTA welding method
Integrated use of chemical fertilizer (N) with poultry manure (PM) as amendments at different concentrations on soil health and cocoyam production in coastal plain soil were investigated Treatments were: Control- (PM0N0), 5 t ha-1 PM (PM5N0), 10 t ha-1 PM (PM10N0), 200 kg NPK ha-1 (PM0N200), 100 kg NPK ha-1 (PM0N100), 2.5 t PM + 100 kg NPK ha-1 (PM2.5N100) and 5 t PM + 100 kg NPK ha-1 (PM5N100). Results revealed that physical and chemical properties of the soi and cocoyam yield were substantially (p < 0.05) improved by application poultry manure at the rate of 10 t ha-1 (PM10) and a combinations of lower concentrations of PM and N (PM5N100). Application of 10 t ha-1 PM increased soil quality indices such as water holding capacity, total porosity and soil organic matter by 64%, 30% and 72% respectively, but much higher effects for PM5N100, compared to the control. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in PM5N100 (25.8 cm h-1) followed by PM10N0 (24.11 cm hr-1). The highest yield of cocoyam (4.8 kg m-2) was found in PM5N100, with maximum leaf area index of 96% which could protect the soil surface from the impact of high tropical rains. It was concluded that integration of inorganic fertilizers with poultry manure can be used with optimum rates to improve crop productivity on sustainable basis.