The control wheeled mobile robot is a good way to test\ncontrol theories. Nowadays, Two Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Mobile\nRobots (TWIPMR) are used in different applications. Stabilizing and\ntracking trajectory will prevent system from falling down when it moves\nforward and backward directions. In addition, the steering angle\nregulation when it turns left or right is also considered. These problems\nare the main series problems that have to be taken into account during\ncontrol design and analysis. To avoid these problems, a decoupling\noptimal controller based linear quadratic regulator design method is\npresented to generate the required an optimal control signals. The\nsimulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed\ncontrol design method for an accurate tracking of the desired trajectory.\nFurthermore, the 3D representation of the simulation and a visualization\nmodel to observe behavior of the robot in different scenarios are\nincluded.
To develop a kinetic model for catalytic reactions, it is necessary to study the effect of mass transfer rate first. This work investigates the non-hydrodesulphurization (NHDS) of diesel fuel, to determine the effect of interface mass transfer resistance. For the tests commercial catalysts like MgO / Al2O3 was used and the feed was obtained from Kakinada oil and gas field of India. The main objective of this work was to investigate effect of mass transfer resistance limitations in catalytic reaction of dibenzothiophene NHDS. It was observed from the results that mass transfer resistance has very less or no significant effect on the reaction rate.
The precision agriculture (PA) aims to increase production and protect the environment, preserving soil and water resources, due to the rational use of agricultural inputs. One of tools of PA is the application of fertilizer at variable rate (VRF). The article purposes to analyze the perceptions of farmers on the use of VRF, identifying the determining factors for the adoption, its difficulties and the expected and perceived benefits on the use of VRF in subtropical environments. The study was made with farmers that use PA techniques in the soybean crop in the State of Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Although this study sampled farmers with a higher education than the average of producers in the region, issues related to knowledge and cost are factors that hinder the adoption of VRF. On the other hand, the benefits perceived by farmers were lower than expected. In sub-tropical environments the perception of the reduction of fertilizer is related to the number of crops on which farmers use VRF. All adopters of VRF had reduced the amount of fertilizer used in the soybean crop, with the greatest reductions been noticeable from the third crop of continue use of VRF.
Air pollution is a big challenge especially for developing countries like Pakistan. Industries and vehicles emissions and unpaved roads are the major sources of size segregated pollutants in urban and peri urban areas. Size segregated pollutants comprising of total suspended particles TSPs particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 and total fifty samples were gathered from urban and peri urban areas of metropolitan Faisalabad by Micro Dust Pro Real Time Particulate Monitor during December 02 to 30 December, 2013. At each monitoring sites samples were collected on 6 hour average basis. The results suggested that there is significant difference at 0.05 level between urban and peri urban areas. Majority of size segregated pollutants including TSP PM10 and PM2.5 were found higher than the US environmental protection agency US EPA national ambient air quality standards NAAQS world health organization WHO and national environmental quality standards for Pakistan NEQS Pak limits for both urban and peri urban areas. Higher level of size segregated pollutants concentration in urban areas were attributed to industrial emissions and high traffic loads. However in peri urban areas brick kiln emissions and unpaved roads contribute to higher levels of size segregated pollutants. More pronounced concentrations of size segregated pollutants were observed in urban areas as compared to peri urban areas with respect to TSP concentration at peak level. Furthermore we have also compared metropolitans size segregated pollutant PM10 with other Pakistan and Asian metropolitans cities and purposed strategy to control it. We suggest that the government should develop rapid mass transient system to control vehicular emission and introduce environmental engineering techniques to control size segregated pollutants in urban areas. For peri urban areas paved roads should be constructed and brick kilns should be situated far away from outskirts areas to avoid minimal human exposure.
Failure to treat Tannery Waste waters from the industries before letting it into water sources has led to contamination of water. Providing clean drinking water to the next generation will be a major challenge ahead of us. There are many different methods to treat contaminated water; one being bioelectrochemical treatment. Application of electric field to a bio-denitrification unit is considered to be a way to address these challenges and hence, improve the efficiency of separation. Recently, successful attempts have been made to demonstrate the removal of nitrate from Tannery Waste water. Various metals have been employed as cathodes which are known to electrochemically reduce nitrate and copper is known to show better catalytic activity in comparison to other transition metals. In this review, bioelectrochemical reactors for nitrate removal was analysed and compared with conventional methods. Also, the opportunities and challenges in the bioelectrochemical reactors are discussed herein.
Omnivorous fish have a large, vast, and varied diet, centered on the supply of protein of animal and vegetal origin; this protein should be incorporated into their food regimen.
In this paper, a photovoltaic PV module simulation is proposed. To represent the solar cell, the simulation was developed based on the one diode mathematical PV model using Matlab/Simulink environment. The simulation behavior of solar module is presented under different operation conditions, taking into consideration the effect of mismatch condition due to the shadow patterns. The model is flexible in predicting accurately the current-voltage (I-V) and power-voltage (P-V) curves and maximum power point of solar module under different types of technologies. The model is also implemented in LabVIEW software to validate the simulation results. The simulation shows a good agreement with the measured data of the manufactured module. Finally, we propose a defect detection scheme allows identifying the defected PV module under various raisons (partial shading, failure, ageing). This scheme is able to use to avoid the damage of the PV module, thereby enhance the efficiency of PV module.
In this study, effects of salt stress, SNP and plant hormones on change of antioxidant enzyme activities in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Tarsan-1018) leaf tissues were investigated. Helianthus annuss L. cv. TARSAN – 1018 seeds were obtained through the Edirne Thrace Agricultural Research Institute, in Turkey. Seeds were irrigated with culture solution for 5 weeks. At the end of the fifth week salt, SNP and hormone applications were performed with foliar application for 72 hour. At the end of 72 hours samples were taken. It has been understood that SNP application has a positive effect on activities of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CA), Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and Glutathione S-transferase (GST). High salinity has negative effects on plants in many ways such as water stress, ion toxicity, nutrient deficiency, metabolic process changes, membrane defects, cell division and expansion, genotoxicity. In this study, it has been observed that, NaCl treatment provided high antioxidant enzyme activities. Plant hormones regulate some biological process in plants. Present study showed that the effects of plant hormones on antioxidant enzyme activities are different. These results show that NO is a key molecule for antioxidant system in plant and ABA and IAA have positively affected on antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, GA has a repressive effect on activities of SOD, CAT, APX and GST.
During the last few years, especially after the collapse of WorldCom and Enron co. and put on shoulders of Art her Anderson co some of the responsibility because he was a responsible to revise and audit the accounts of this company that led to its collapse, he was accused of compering the accounting data of the company by using some treatments and accounting policies that show unrealistic accounting forms, and for the dominant conditions in the business world and the resort of many companies to refine fiscal data to improve the financial status either by profitability or by the financial status to achieve their own goals, these administration resort to use creative accounting methods and thus exploit the variety of accounting alternatives the international accounting standards (IAS/IFARS (in preparing the financial statements which negatively affect the credibility of these statements. The appearance of what is later known as FORNSIC ACCOUNTING beome the core of focus and interest of accounting and dealers of law and judiciary equally and all the beneficiates who use counting data reported in financial statement of the various companies.
Average global climate is changing rapidly and increasing evidence indicates that global warming has consequences in numerous plant and animal species. In bird species, these impacts often manifest in geographic distribution, clutch size, brood size, population size, competitive relationships between species, interaction between bird species and other species, morphology etc. However, most long-term observations were focused on spring migration and breeding phenology variations. The aim in this paper was to investigate how the timing Great Tit breeding in related to local spring surface temperatures. Also, I examined trend laying dates (first clutch) during 33-year period. Monitoring was done in the period from 1984 until 2016, in Mokrice rural area (northwestern Croatia). Mean surface spring temperature have significant increased by 2.5 °C in research period. Clutch initiation in Great Tit has significant advanced by 0.214 days per year. Relationship between spring temperature and laying date also significant. My results indicate that breeding phenology in Great Tit has responded to increasing mean spring surface temperatures.
This paper deals the several kinds of image encryption and decryption strategies. In the advanced computerized world, the transmitting and storing of multimedia content is more. However, the security level of computerized data while transmitting is an enormous issue. The extensive literatures are collected related to the performance improvement of different encryption techniques are critically reviewed and presented in this paper. This review also depicts the basis of different parameters like imperceptibility, visual degradation, compression friendliness, speed etc.
In this paper, we propose a new application of\nthe sliding mode technique (SM) to optimize and\ncontrol a photovoltaic pumping system. This last is\ncomposed of a photovoltaic generator (PV ) supplying\na three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor\n(PMSM) coupled to a centrifugal pump through a\nthree-phase voltage inverter.\nThe studied system is based on two regulators that use\nthe sliding mode technique and the specication of the\nvector control. The rst is to force the PV to operate\nat the maximum power point (MPPT) while the second\nis used to provide vector control to improve the system\nperformance.\nThe whole system is analysed, and its mathematical\nmodel is done.Matlab/Simulink is used to validate the\nperformances and robustness of the proposed control\nstrategy.
In this work, CuO nanoparticles with mean diameter of 30-50 nm is dispersed in de-ionized water with four nanoparticle volume concentrations of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75%. The effect of CuO/water nanofluid on the heat transfer enhancement of shell and tube heat exchanger is investigated under turbulent regime for four different volume flow rates of 150, 200, 250 and 300 L/h. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid was approximately 18.49% higher than that of water. Increasing the Reynolds number and particle concentration caused an increase in the heat transfer coefficient and heat exchanger effectiveness. A new correlation was obtained for predicting the Nusselt number of the CuO/water nanofluid in shell and tube heat exchangers under the test conditions of the present study.
This review considers the history of development of forensic entomology from the 13th century to contemporary research. Main stages of the nearly 900-year history are indicated. Researchers, have made the greatest contribution to the development of this scientific and applied branches of knowledge are characterized. Main groups of insects that inhabit dead bodies are shown, peculiarities of their development at different stages of decomposition of a corpse are given, most significant for forensic entomology species are identified.\n Major problems solved with forensic entomology (determination of the time of death; determination of how long a corpse has been present in the place where it was found; determination of cadaver relocation; determination of the initial location of a corpse and the route of its movement; determination of environmental conditions under which the death happened; detection of the potential cause of death in the case of suicide; and determination of the place of origin of narcotic plant raw material) are discussed. Examples of criminal investigation using the methods of forensic entomology are given.