The working of biomass cookstove is as old as human\ncivilization. The use of inefficient burning biomass cookstove leads\nto number of deaths due to indoor air pollution. The performance of\ncookstove is generally determine by trial and error experiment which\nis very time and energy consuming process. The present work\novercomes the difficulty faced in designing of multipot biomass\ncookstove. It presents a mathematical approach to determine the\nthermal performance of a two-pot cookstove. The model values are\nvalidated with the experimentation and corresponding results are\npresented in the paper.
In the current study, we endeavored to ascertain the most favorable application of L-cysteine for cryopreservation of Achai and Holstein Friesian bull semen under the subtropical conditions of Peshawar region. Semen of six matured bulls, three Achai (the indigenous breed) and three Holstein Friesian (exotic breed) amount to the experimental material at Government Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm Harichand Charsadda. Collection of Semen from the either breed was carried with artificial vagina maintained at 42°C and processed separately breed wise. Gross and microscopic examination was carried out subsequent to the semen collection. Semen specimen with more than 70% motile characteristics were used for further processing.The semen was divide into four aliquots in which tris-citric acid extender (TCA) was added with diverse level of L-cysteine 0 mM , 0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 1.5 mM. Cooling and equilibration of the diluted semen was done at 4°C. Four hour in total was consumed for these two events subsequently packed in straws at 4°C, held reserved in liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min followed by storage in the liquid nitrogen (-196°C) for assessment. Progressive motility and viability of spermatozoa were significantly enhanced at 1.5 mM and 1.0 mM L-cysteine supplemented groups in comparison with 0.5 mM or 0 mM. The number of HOST positive spermatozoa at 1.5 or 1.0 mM was greater in comparison with lower concentration of 0.5 or 0 mM L-cysteine. Furthermore, significant difference for acrosomal integrity was recorded in semen samples treated with 1.5 mM L-cysteine followed by 1mM, 0.5mM and control. The current study demonstrated that 1.0 or 1.5 mM was the most favorable deliberation of L-cysteine to be added to the TCA extender for enhancement of frozen-thawed semen of Achai and Holstein Friesian bulls under the existing managemental environment.
The aim of the study was to investigate the role of the autonomic nervous system and endothelial vasoregulators in the development of primary arterial hypotension (PAH) in children. The cardiointervalography results of 113 children with PAH were compared with 88 healthy children of comparable age (7–11 years). The findings revealed that children with PAH had higher activity of the sympathetic (p < 0.001) and parasympathetic (p < 0.001) divisions of the autonomic nervous system at the initial (resting) position of clinoorthostatic test. The activity of these divisions of the autonomic nervous system correlated with the activity of cardiac pacemaker. The change of position from horizontal into vertical was accompanied by a rise only in sympathetic activity (p < 0.001). However, there was a decline in the sympathetic nervous system (p < 0.001) compared to the indices of the initial (resting) position is registered in the tenth minute of the vertical position. This decrease may be due to the adaptational or compensatory abilities of the sympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system based on heart rate variability showed high activity in all positions of the clinoorthostatic test in the patients with PAH compared with healthy children. The activity of the parasympathetic nervous system was associated with increased synthesis of endothelial factors (e.g. nitric oxide, endothelins) in blood. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that inadequate response of the autonomic nervous system to clinoorthostatic test in children with PAH is associated with disorders of both divisions of the autonomic nervous system as well as vascular endothelial factors.
Background: Due to their academic nature, medical students may have less time to do routine exercise. Physical inactivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and was associated with the quality of life (QOL) and stress level due to the profession (burnout). Blood lactate (La¯) concentration after exercise is an indicator of fitness levels and energy source for skeletal muscles during exercise. It is not known whether blood La¯ concentration can predict the levels of physical activity, QoL and burnout among first-year medical students.\nObjective: The aim of this study was to evaluate post-exercise blood La¯ concentration and its correlations with physical activity, QoL, and burnout level among first-year medical students.\nMethods: This was a cross-sectional study done in the Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University, Jakarta between April and June 2016. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Subjects were asked to do Harvard step test and underwent blood La¯ measurement prior to and 5 minutes after the test. Quality of life measured by SF-36, while burnout was assessed using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) scale. Correlation test was done using the Spearman’s rho analysis.\nResults: A total of 126 students were enrolled; 76 (60.3%) were female students. Mean intensity of physical activity was 652.67±554 METs, which was considered minimally active. There was a negative correlation between IPAQ and increasing post-exercise La¯ (rho=-0.371; p<0.001). Higher post-exercise blood La¯ was correlated with higher QoL in 3 aspects i.e. “role limitation due to physical health” (rho=0.320; p<0.001), “social functioning” (rho=0.230; p=0.005), and “physical pain” (rho=0.200; p=0.013). Higher post-exercise blood La¯ was also correlated with less burnout reflected in OLBI statement-5 (rho=-0.215; p=0.007), statement-6 (rho=0.232; p=0.040), and statement-14 (rho=-0.200; p=0.014). \nConclusion: The first-year medical students in this study have minimal physical activity, which resulted in higher post-exercise blood La¯ concentration. Furthermore, higher post-exercise blood La¯ concentration correlates with higher quality of life and less burnout.
In this article, a solitary phase nine-level series connected H-Bridge powered by photovoltaic MPPT based SHAPF in view of basic controller is proposed. SRF is utilized for reference input current extraction and to create pulses for the SHAPF. The principle point of the cascaded bridge is to dispense harmonics, enhance power factor and reactive energy compensation of the single-phase distribution framework. The suggested control calculation has two parts, changing the load current into stationary reference outline directions and estimation of peak amplitude of load currents. Consequently, a basic and dependable controller effortlessly of execution was created. The calculation for single-phase SHAF is intending to perform with exact tracking performance under step changes in load currents and to give great dynamic compensation. In this article, synchronous reference theory PLL with Inverse-Park change is adopted for producing quadrature part of current. The execution of the control calculation is tried and assessed utilizing MATLAB/Simulink tool.
One of the most famous techniques of non-coherent differential chaos shift keying (DCSK) is Quadrature chaos shift keying (QCSK) system, this system suffered from lowering data rate and increasing the bit energy during the bit transmission even though it’s rate greater than DCSK by double. Short reference (SR) technique is proposed for QCSK system to produce SR-QCSK system that enhances these drawbacks. The main idea of short reference technique is minimizing the length of reference chaotic signal (β) at transmitter by a factor P comparing to produce R samples for the new reference signal while the length of bearing information signal remained unchanged this occurs by duplicating the reference signal P times to get the same length as conventional QCSK. Therefore the symbol duration is reduced from 2βTc to (R+β)Tc. In the proposed system, information rate and energy saving enhancement factor in percent form is derived compared to QCSK and DCSK system. Also the BER analytical expression is derived for SR-QCSK in AWGN and multipath fading channel. The experimental simulation results show that this theory derivation gives good analysis tracking for BER performance. SR_QCSK system is comparing with other DCSK techniques and the simulation results show that it has superior performance in multipath Rayleigh fading channel.
In the present study described the impact of water quality on the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, distribution in man – made Pergau Lake was carried out. Recently, Pergau Lake was gazette as state park and any activities related to fishery and agricultural were not allowed in the park. Subsequently, the nearby lake community was affected as many of them earn a living by carrying fisheries activity in the lake especially harvesting Asian clam. 10 sampling sites were selected in the lake to monitor water quality and Asian clam distribution. Water parameters data were also subjected to cluster analysis by using Ward’s method with squared Euclidean distances as a measure of similarity and a dendrogram was successfully generated. The water quality of the lake is under good condition and suitable to carry fishery activities by referred to Malaysia National Water Quality Standards (NWQS). The dendrogram revealed that the sampling sites can be divided into 2 clusters where Location 1 alone in its own cluster. Another cluster possesses 2 sub clusters where Location 2 and 3 shared similar sub cluster. Another sub cluster has two groups namely Location 5, 6 and 8 in one group whereas Location 4, 7, 9 and 10 shared similar group. The findings of the present study showed most of sampled Asian clam in Pergau Lake was semi mature indicating highly exploitation of Asian clam in the Lake. Furthermore, no any correlation was detected between the population of Asian clam and water quality of the lake. Hence, we suggest that seasonal harvesting Asian clam should be implemented in order to conserve the population of Asian clam in the lake at the mean time the community to continue earn a living through carrying fishery activities in the lake.
Waste and packaging management is now a global concern. In Cameroon, the problem is been taken seriously by the State. But it is above all at the level of the most ordinary citizen that the greatest emphasis must be placed. This article proposes eleven points to demonstrate the useful action regarding waste and recycling. In the long run, it will be seen that the most anonymous attitudes imply various consequences in the recycling problem.