Mezcal is a traditional Mexican alcoholic beverage made through an artisanal process in which several microorganisms from the region ferment the juice from Agave pines. Eight isolated strains (A1, C2, D2, D3, E1, F2, G1 and H1) from the region of San Francisco Etúcuaro in Michoacán, México were studied and identified using molecular techniques. DNA extraction was carried out by alkaline lysis and 5.8S rRNA was amplified using the internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4 as primers. The amplified sequences were identified using public data bases as yeast from the genus Rhodotorula, Kodamaea, Meyerozyma, Clavispora and Kluyveromyces. Cell growth, substrate consumption and ethanol production in YPD medium was measured for each strain. Maximum growth rates (max) ranged from 0.26 h-1 to 63 h-1and cell concentrations of 107-108 cell/mL. Sugar in the medium was depleted between 10 and16 hours, except for Rh. mucilaginosa strains, which had a lower consumption. Initial pH from the medium decreased significantly in 24 hours, whereas ethanol production increased from 1.23% to 11% (v/v). C. lusitaniae and K. marxianus were the fastest growing strains, while only C. lusitaniae was the best ethanol producer.
This paper studies the effect of coarser fill on circular tunnel subjected to dynamic\nloading. Three different diameter tunnels were used to carry the test at different\noverburden depth. Tunnel was placed parallel and perpendicular to direction of shaking.\nThe tunnel was assumed to be elastic. The dry coarser fill was used for test. Dry coarser\nfill was assumed to follow non-linear elastic–plastic material using Mohr–Coulomb\nfailure criterion with non-associated flow rule. The properties of soil like young’s\nmodulus and shear modulus of coarser fill was calculated from bender element test. The\nsoil-tunnel interface coefficient was calculated from direct shear test. The soil pressure\ngenerated due to dynamic loading were measured by soil pressure transducers. The actual\nmotion of shake table was captured by hand held vibration analyser. The 3-D finite\nelement model was developed for tunnel with both orientations. The results obtained from\nnumerical analysis are compared with experimental results and are expressed in form of\npeak dynamics stresses.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the scientific language used in the DSM-5 to diagnose “mental disorders” through a theoretical analysis. In particular, the concepts of “science of mental disorders” and “scientific progress” are investigated and the epistemological and operative implications of their use are introduced, covering the fields of psycho-social sciences. Arguing from a interactionist theoretical perspective, for the first set of implications, the concepts of a-theoretical, objective and neutral, evidence-based research and the tools used in order to pursue diagnostic validity and reliability are analyzed. For the second set, some consequences of the use of such concepts in the work of mental health professionals with their patients, are highlighted. In conclusion, some considerations about the relationship between the object of study, epistemological references and practical instruments are expressed.
The developments in telecommunication networks have proved that the number of hardware in access networks is reduced by using the optical transmission technology. Higher order modulation formats such as 4 level pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM4), Digital Signal Processing (DSP) techniques and Short Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SWDM) with wideband Multimode Fiber (MMF) have been proposed to increase the capacity over the data centre networks. The optical power has been increased to reduce the channel loss and attenuation. BER (Bit Error Rate) is significantly improved by choosing strong signal strength, and efficient modulation schemes. The paper also analyzes how optical transmission technology improves the computing power in the network of computers
The present work deals with a novel approach of vector Voltage, Flux and Puissance Control (VOC, FOC and DPC) strategies for a Double Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS). A new formula for harmonic current mitigation using active filters is developed and proposed by our laboratory, in purpose of generate a clean green power to the grid. The several level control strategies both in normal operation and under constraint conditions are discussed, including: active and reactive power control for the rotor-side converter, DC voltage control for the grid-side converter and the corresponding internal current loops control. Simulation results with experimental comparison for a dynamic 1.5 MW DFIG model confirm the robustness and the performance of the different proposed approaches
Many efforts have been done in Mexico City trying to reduce air pollution; however the results obtained have not been as good as expected. Gasolines were reformulated in 1986, oxygenated compounds were added in 1988, a mandatory Inspection/Maintenance program I/M and Driving Restrictions was applied in 1989, modified in 2008, 2014 and 2016. The introduction of unleaded Gasoline Magna Sin in 1990 allowed the use of catalytic converters in vehicles, and the reduction of sulphur content in gasoline, causing a slow decrement in air pollution. On November 1989, driving restrictions were applied for the first time in a mandatory fashion, removing 20% of the vehicles of the traffic from Monday to Friday, adding Saturdays in July 2008 and modified in July 2014. Nevertheless, reduction in air pollution was not observed, neither in 1989, 2008 nor in 2014. In 1992 the reduction of sulphur in gasoline content reduced the pollution, but in 2009 when the content of sulphur was reduced to 30 ppm did not show any improvement.
This paper mainly discusses a photovoltaic pumping system ¸which consists of photovoltaic generator $(PV)$, Buck-Boost converter, three phase voltage inverter and an induction motor $IM$ coupled to a centrifugal pump. The sliding mode technique is used to control the chopper and DC-AC while the $IM$ control is based on the rotor field-oriented control (FOC). The entire system including the modelling method and the control strategy was verified through simulation results obtained from a mathematical model implemented under Matlab software that well represented the studied system.