OBJECTIVE: Ethnic differences detection of HLA-B27 allelic gene association with development and a clinical course of juvenile spondyloarthritis in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).\nBACKGROUND: The juvenile ankylosing spondylitis (Bekhterev\'s disease) is a constitutional chronic progressive disease which is characterized by an inflammatory injury of musculoskeletal system, a spine, sacroiliac joints, tendinous and muscular structures, and rare - organs of vision and internals. Boys over 9 years are mostly subjected to the disease. The reasons are not detected yet. Great importance attached to the genetic factors (histocompatibility antigen HLA-B27). Detection of B27 allele is the one of modern approaches in preliminary diagnosis and in choice of treatment. \nMETHODS: We tested 73 patients belonging to 73 unrelated families from Yakutia diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondyloarthritis (Bekhterev\'s disease), psoriatic arthritis and reactive arthritis for the carrier state of B27 allele.\nRESULTS: Statistically significant association with the 27 allele carrier state locus B is found in group of male Yakuts with a juvenile ankylosing spondyloarthritis (OR (95% of CI) = 5.6471 (1.3474-23.6676); p=0.0179).\nCONCLUSION: Population frequency of B27 allele over Yakuts is 33% that is 3 times more than at Russians. In Yakuts population the communication between B27 and juvenile arthritis is not detected. Probably, it connects with heavy heterogenetic selection of patients. The carrier state of B27 allele over female Yakut doesn\'t increase a risk to become ill with a juvenile ankylosing spondyloarthritis, whereas the carrier state of B27 allele of male Yakut increases the risk for 5-6 times.
Remote sensing techniques are useful for the determination of agricultural areas, especially of commodities such as soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and maize (Zea mays L.). Nevertheless, the mapped areas do not always correspond to the reality, due to spectral confusion. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to distinguish these two crops, based on the angular coefficients of logarithmic equations, adjusted to Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time-series, in municipalities of the State of Paraná, Brazil, during the 2007-08 cropping season. The results have shown that in areas with steep slopes it was impossible to distinguish them due to a strong spectral confusion. However, in flat areas, it was possible to distinguish them. The spatially distributed results showed the municipalities separated in two different portions. The municipality located in the northern part of Paraná had its angular coefficients for soybean and maize statistically differentiated; the average angular coefficient for maize was 0.61, and for soybean, 0.38, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.71 and overall accuracy of 81.2 %. In the southern portion of Paraná, this perception was not possible because this area has hilly terrain and plantations in small fields, which precludes its distinction from sensor systems with a spatial resolution of 250 m like Modis/Terra.
Our country is facing a twofold confront. It should maintain or even enhance its competitiveness, a basic necessity in a globalised economy and under the recent demographic threat. It desires also to deal with the so called “imposing challenges”, particularly environmental issues, through a sustainable method of production and consumption. Such challenge must lead to new business and industrial methods, based on new sustainable production and consumption chains, from design till end of life. This means a need for new industrial materials and procedures, new skills and certainly, new values and life-styles. Sustainability and innovation are key elements of India’s Research and Innovation Framework Programmes, mainly in the field of industrial technologies, whose objective is to develop the competitiveness of the Indian industry and produce knowledge to make sure its transformation from a resource intensive to a knowledge intensive industry. Sustainability and innovation are interconnected challenges for R&D. Research can expand technical solutions to embark upon environmental or societal challenges, but such technologies have to to be successfully commercialised to have a real environmental impact. This papers deals with a study on sustainability of submersible pumps and determine the metrics needed for improving the standards in Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) environment
The efficiency of the flotation process strongly depends on the characteristics of the gas dispersion: bubble diameter, gas holdup, and bubble surface area flux. Bubble size is important since it is responsible of colliding, attaching, and carrying the valuable species out of the column as concentrate; therefore, it is important to design spargers to control the gas dispersion characteristics and to increase the metallurgical performance of flotation.\nIn this research work the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation method was applied to design and study the hydraulic phenomena that occur inside the sparger type venturi, when bubbles are generated. This sparger was simulated to be externally attached to a flotation column, and for a water-air system. The CFD was solved through the software ANSYS Fluent R16.2®, and the preprocessor Gambit 2.4.6. During the solution two turbulence models were assumed: k-, and LES; and the multiphase model: VOF.\nThe simulated venturi has the inlet and outlet diameter of 0.0381 m, whereas in the center the diameter is 0.0127 m (contracted vein). The convergent and divergent angles are of 15 degrees. Eight holes were radially distributed around the vein contract or throat of the venturi, to supply compressed air to the sparger.\nExperimental results show that the bubble size and distribution of the bubbles swarm is more homogeneous when the gas is supplied through the eight orifices. The simulation results indicate that with the models VOF/k-ε both the dynamic pressure and phases velocity are not homogeneous inside the venturi, and when the bubbles swarm goes into the flotation column, a severe mixing is observed, caused by the appearance of zones with different density in the column. On the other hand, with the models VOF/LES the dynamic pressure and phases velocity are more uniform inside the sparger, ensuring an even bubble swarm distribution in the column.
In India, the demand for steel tremendously increased since the turn of the millennium due to the economic development. Iron and steel industry involves a variety of complex processes and large scale operations. Most of the processes are extremely hazardous in nature. The working environment of steel industries poses potential dangers and the employees are exposed to high hazards. In order to avoid hazards, suitable and stringent precautions are to be observed. Wide range of hazards or workplace activities or conditions in steel industries can cause accidents, injury, risks leading to death, ill health or diseases.
The modern chemical plants are complex due to technological advancements and depending upon the nature of operations, it involves hazards of varying degree at each stage. In India, it has developed very fast with large size Fertilizers, Petrochemical Plants and Oil Refineries and very large number of large, medium and small scale chemical factories. Though scientific handling of chemicals is practiced in large units, the information on such aspects is not readily available and accessible to people working in medium and small scale chemical units. This paper deals with safety measures in operation and maintenance of chemical plants.