Las áreas verdes en las ciudades son elementos importantes para la conservación de la avifauna. En este estudio se presentan estimaciones de riqueza y abundancia de aves y su relación con las áreas verdes de la ciudad de San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, México. Identificamos un total de 75 especies de aves en diez áreas verdes de diferente tamaño de febrero a julio de 2016 y relacionamos su presencia con variables ambientales obtenidas a dos escalas geográficas distintas (local y de paisaje). Se utilizaron análisis no paramétricos para comparar la riqueza y abundancia de las aves entre áreas verdes y categorías de tamaño. El porcentaje de superficie total ocupada de vegetación fue la variable más importante al correlacionarse positivamente con la riqueza y abundancia de aves. Mientras que el porcentaje de cobertura de dosel, de construcciones, de pavimento y de áreas verdes muestreadas se correlacionaron negativamente con la riqueza y abundancia de aves. Por lo que la heterogeneidad espacial de la estructura vegetal vertical en las áreas verdes urbanas es importante para incrementar la diversidad de la avifauna.
The paper examines the Ionospheric response to the annular eclipse of the sun on January 15, 2010 over eastern and western Malaysia using GPS data measurement from 14-ground station in Malaysia. The GPS sensing technique employs two different approaches to verify the TEC depletion occurrence at the 14-stations. The first approach measures the TEC depletion parameters at the 14 GPS stations during the solar event. The second approach compares the TEC value with the quiet day TEC variation at one of the station 3-days before and 3-days after the solar eclipse event. The GPS observation indicates occurrence of TEC depression at 6 stations where the behaviour varying from one station to another. On the basis of the first and second measurement techniques, the range of TEC depletions at the six stations were 9 to 20 %, while for the other 8-stations 0.4 to 12% respectively. The measurement shows that TEC depression at most GPS stations began on the neck of the first contact of the solar eclipse followed by deeper depressions. This effect was as a result of the hiding of the optical rays during the solar eclipse which causes direct reduction in photo ionization; destroy the previous photo-chemical equilibrium and result in the depletion in electron density.
The present work had as objective to contribute to scientifically knowledge expansion among senior year students, in a public secondary school at a Brazil’s country town, through nanoscience and nanotechnology dissemination. We have applied a questionnaire pre and post interventions. We have conducted four interventions about: introduction to nanotechnology, nanotechnology in cosmetics, nanotechnology in medicine and application to nanotechnology in food products. In the first questionnaire, 29% of the students answered that they have already heard about nanotechnology, but only 6% of them knew how to describe it. However, as the second questionnaire pointed out, about 80% of the students knew how to describe nanotechnology advantages in a day-to-day context. The students have showed to be receptive to our activities, and have took them as a way of contribution to the expansion of their understanding of science. In this way, the results indicate that our work objective was accomplished.
Background: Lichen planus (LP) carries the increased risk of cardiovascular events as it is a chronic inflammatory disease. Arrythmias are the main risk factors especially in terms of cardiovascular events. We aimed in this study to determine in the patients with LP the relationship between total atrial conduction time, P-wave dispersion and the left atrium global strain, which are the predictors of atrial arrythmias most commonly affecting the society. \nMethods: 40 patients as a control group and 40 patients with lichen planus were included in this study. Conventional 2D echocardiography, assessment of left atrial function has been performed by measuring volumes. The average peak values of left atrial strain during the left ventricular systole were measured (LAGLS). Total atrial conduction time (TACT) values were assessed by 2D tissue doppler imaging. \nResults: The global peak systolic LA myocardium strain during the left ventricular systole (LAGLSRs) and the global peak negative LA myocardial strain rate during the early ventricular diastole (LAGLSRe) values were significantly lower in the patients with LP in proportion to the control according to the strain measurements (1.7±0.07 vs 1.9±0.1 % p=0,001; 1.23±0.04 vs 1.2±0.08 s-1 p=0,001 ) respectively. When considered in terms of the atrial conduction features, total atrial conduction time (TACT) value was found significantly longer (102.6±6.3 ms) in the patients with LP in proportion to the control group (96.3±5.3 ms. p=0,001). \nConclusions: Our study demonstrated that the subclinical cardiac involvement in LP could be predicted by the prolonged TACT and the impaired left atrial myocardial deformation values
This work presents the 70V/18V non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter for PV applications. The open loop simulation analysis of the converter with step up and step down mode is presented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Finally, the prototype model of the converter is developed and tested in the laboratory. This converter has the advantages of high voltage gain, high step up/step down voltage conversion ratio, maximum conversion efficiency, having less number of switches and Low voltage stress across switches.
The job-shop scheduling issues (JSSPs) has been solving by many algorithms in the last few decades, including traditional type techniques.in this paper, a hybrid framework which is based on a combination of Grey Wolf-Chicken Swarm Optimization is proposed in order to reduce maximum completion time. The GWO algorithm is modified and hybridized in the implementation to optimize the search procedure and to solve the multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling issues (FJSSP). To establish the effectiveness of GWO and efficiency of the hybrid algorithm, some problems of different scales are used. The results show that proposed hybrid Grey Wolf-Chicken Swarm Optimization algorithm can accomplish good optimization results in terms various iteration levels of both optimization accuracy and robustness also easily applied in real industrial conditions and for large size problems. proposed method consumes 3.86s for 1000 iteration compared with GA (28.72s) and ACO (26.06s), proposed method was very less time period and cost for 6 machines to complete 16 jobs.