In general, various methods and tools had been developed in order to melt and pour the reactive metals like titanium under vacuum. The apparatus and system which are used are very costlier and uneconomical. As for this paper, the main objective is to present preliminary design of the setup which shall be used in melting and pouring the molten metal under the inert atmosphere and vacuum system. Currently the most suitable method of titanium is to use induction skull melting(ISM) in which the alloy is melted in water cooled segmented copper crucible. Although this enhances up the metallurgical properties satisfactory, it has a poor efficiency and is therefore costly to use. In this paper, it is proposed to melt the titanium alloy with argon shielding. Prior to that the experimental setup required for the argon gas shielding is fabricated in house and the heating medium used is induction melting with the help of existing induction furnace. The complete set up is redesigned and modified with new conceptual design for titanium melting with bottom pouring crucible mechanism. A promising new technique for direct melting and pouring cobalt chromium/titanium alloy for medical implants emerged from this project. Our research demonstrated the feasibility of direct melting and casting of cobalt chromium /Titanium alloy (Ti6AlV4) vacuum technology.
Fruits of Leuchtenbergia principis were collected from the botanical garden of the Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas de la UJED, with the objective of evaluating the effect of temperature and storage time on the viability of seeds of the \"Cactus agave\". The first batch of seeds was collected in September 2013, and the second batch of seeds in September 2014. The objective was to evaluate the viability of seeds of the \"Cactus agave\", affected by the storage time and to evaluate the effect of the temperature over its longevity. The seeds were placed in Petri dishes, using sand as a substrate. The five boxes (considered as five repetitions), were placed in a germinating chamber with a photoperiod of 12 light hours / 12 dark hours, under a constant temperature of 25 ° C. The daily germination record of the seeds was taken for 30 days, determining the percentage of germination at the end of the period, as well as the germination speed (t50) calculated as the number of days elapsed until obtaining half of the seeds that germinated in 30 days. No significant differences were found in the percentage of germination according to the storage time, with 91% germination of the seeds collected in September 2013 and 89% germination of the seeds collected in September 2014. It is important to extend the experiment with more years of storage of the seeds to determine the time and conditions in which stored seeds lose viability.
Silver nanoparticles (SNP) are used in a variety of consumer and biomedical products because of its antibacterial activity. These applications result in an increment human exposition for systemic toxicity of SNP. The present study evaluated clinical, hematology and histopathological alterations in rats exposed to different sizes and concentrations of intraperitoneally administrated SNP. Different groups of Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected using two sizes (7.1 and 17.5 nm) and three different concentrations of SNP (133.75, 535 and 1070 µg/mL) for 0, 15 and 30 days. General clinical conditions, clinical chemistry, hematology and histopathology tests were evaluated. All SNP samples were well tolerated for all rats. Clinical chemistry and hematology values were associated with liver and renal abnormalities (p˂0.05). Histopathology analysis revealed the presence of chronic inflammatory infiltrate, lymphoid follicles (not reported previously) and nodular inflammatory infiltrate in stomach, lungs, liver and kidneys. Concentrations and the size of SNP were associated to clinical chemistry, hematology and histopathology findings (p<0.05). These results provide in vivo evidence of toxic effect of SNP in rats. The administration of intraperitoneal injected SNP might remarkably induce toxic effects in the structure and function of specific organs.
Industrial effluent and municipal sewage water rapidly discharge in ecosystems that cause pollution and interfere the plant growth. In countries, like Pakistan where wastewater is commonly used to irrigate both food and non food crops.In this study, effect of wastewater (municipal sewage water (MSW) and sugar Mill effluent (SME)) with different treatments, control (distalled water) and raw water (25, 50 and 75 %) on physiological and biochemical characteristics of two rice varieties i.e. Basmati-385 (B-385) and Shaheen Basmati (S.B) were examined. Physiological parameters such as germination percentage, germination rate, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot showed the maximum increased at 25 % while significant decreased was observed at concentrated rawwater. Similarly, at 25%, significant decreased was observed in cellular injury, proline and Na+ion content followed by an increase in K+ and Ca+ion contents. Significant increase occurred in photosynthetic pigments (chl a, chl b and carotenoids) at 25 % than the control. It can be concluded that dilutions of water is one of the key processes for reducing the concentration of toxic metals in wastewater and can be used effectively for crop irrigation.
This study aims to determine and test the difference between learning outcomes and interaction between test results using demonstration learning with students who use cooperative learning and have high learning motivation and have low learning motivation.\nData collection techniques used questionnaires and test methods. While the sampling technique using random sampling. While the data analysis used is a two-way variance analysis used normality and homogeneity before knowing the data of normal distribution and data homogeneity.\nBased on calculations made that cooperative learning proved to give a positive influence and improve student learning outcomes
The purpose of this research is to know and test the Effect of Using Cooperative Learning Model, Conventional Learning Model and Learning Motivation to Learning Outcomes\nData collection using questionnaires and test methods. Questionnaires are used to determine student learning motivation, while testing methods are used to determine learning outcomes. While the data analysis is a two-way variance analysis.\nBased on the calculation, cooperative learning can be an alternative innovative learning model used by teachers to improve student learning outcomes
Malnutrition and heart diseases are common among kidney patients undergoing hemodialysis. A study was conducted to assess the dietary status and lipid profile of hemodialysis patients in Multan. A total of 60 subjects were taken from both sexes, out of which 30 subjects were on maintenance hemodialysis and 30 were healthy. Dietary status particularly estimated total caloric intake/day was assessed by using 24-hour dietary recall method and calculated with the help of Pakistan food composition database 2001. Blood samples were taken from arterio-venous fistula for lipid profile in hemodialysis patients before starting dialysis procedure and healthy subjects by vein puncturing. The results indicated that estimated intake of calories was lower than the recommended intake for hemodialysis patients as compared to healthy subjects. The serum cholesterol, triglyceride (TG) / low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels more than 95th percentile and high density lipoprotein (HDL) less than 40 mg/dL were defined as dyslipidaemia. In current study, common lipid abnormalities were noticed as slightly elevated cholesterol levels, hypertriglyceridemia, and decrease in HDL levels compared to healthy population. This study suggests that assessment of caloric intake/day and its management of hemodialysis patients play a central role in preventing the risk of malnutrition.
With the invention of newer alloys with extreme hardness and the advancement of CNC machine tools it has become inevitable to search for new cutting tools with longer tool life and for enhancement with quality as well as productivity. In the present investigation EN32 case hardened low carbon steel is taken as workpiece material and the Ti/TiN multi layer PVC coated and uncoated tungsten carbide are taken as cutting tool under continuous turning process. 28 numbers of experiments are conducted with different conditions of input parameters such as speed, feed, and depth of cut. It is observed from the experimental results that cutting tool with Ti/TiN coated possesses increased wear resistance and toughness. It is further observed that the dominant failure mechanism of the cutting tool is due to abrasive wear from the images taken from the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Further, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS or EDX) analyses have performed to investigate the exportation of the workpiece material in atomic level into the wear zone of the cutting tool